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Selenium simulates user behaviours including clicking buttons, completing forms, and moving around online sites by directly managing web browsers. Additionally, it has the ability to interact with HTML components, find and extract data from them, as well as carry out operations like submitting forms and uploading files.
Running tests across a variety of browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer, is one of Selenium’s key benefits. This eliminates the need to manually test each browser and platform, allowing developers and testers to verify that their online apps function properly across them all.
Unit testing, integration testing, and end-to-end testing are just a few of the testing possibilities offered by Selenium. It supports a number of testing frameworks, including JUnit, TestNG, and NUnit, and can be used to test both web applications and web services.
Installation and Configuration
On every platform, Selenium may be installed and configured. To begin, the following actions must be taken:
Install a Browser: Selenium supports a variety of web browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, and Internet Explorer. As a result, you must install the browser of your choice on your PC.
Install the Selenium WebDriver: The Selenium WebDriver is a set of APIs that enables Selenium to interact with web browsers. Package managers such as pip (Python) or npm (Node.js) can be used to install the WebDriver.
Create a Development Environment: A development environment is a software programme that enables you to write, run, and test code. Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, and Visual Studio Code are the most popular Selenium development environments.
Create a Project: Create a new project in your development environment, then add the Selenium WebDriver dependency to your project’s build file.
Developing Test Scripts
It’s time to build test scripts after you’ve set up the development environment. Test scripts are written in the programming language of your choosing and interact with web browsers using the Selenium WebDriver APIs.
The instructions below describe how to create a basic Selenium test script:
Create a New Test Class: Create a new class and include the appropriate Selenium and test framework imports.
Set Up the WebDriver: Create a new instance of the WebDriver for the browser you wish to test.
Browse to a Web Page: To browse to a web page, use the WebDriver’s get() function and specify the URL of the page you wish to test.
Find Elements: Use Selenium’s findElement() function to locate the HTML elements with which you wish to interact. You may look for items by ID, class name, tag name, or CSS selector.
Interact with items: In the previous phase, you used the WebDriver to interact with the items you discovered. Elements can be interacted with by clicking on them, typing text into input areas, or selecting choices from dropdown menus.
Assertions: Finally, utilise assertions to test the intended behaviour of the web page. Assertions are used to validate that certain conditions are satisfied. For example, you might assert that a specific element is present on the page or that a form was properly submitted.
After creating test scripts, you may run them to put your web application through its paces. The instructions below describe how to run Selenium tests:
Run Test Cases: You may run individual test cases or a whole suite of tests in your development environment.
View Test Results: Test results are presented in your development environment’s console or output window. You may also create reports to see the outcomes of your testing.
Debug Test Failures: If a test fails, you may utilise the debugging tools in your development environment to troubleshoot and resolve the issue.
Continuous Integration: You can integrate Selenium tests into your continuous integration (CI) pipeline to automate the testing process. This can help you catch issues early on in the development cycle and ensure that your web application is functioning correctly.
Advantages of Selenium
Cross-Browser Compatibility: Selenium supports a large number of web browsers, including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari. This is one of the program’s key features. This enables designers and testers to make sure that their online apps function properly on many platforms and browsers.
Open-Source: Selenium is a free and modifiable tool that is offered under the terms of the “open-source” movement. This enables teams that might not have the funds for commercial testing tools to use it as a cost-effective option.
Disadvantages of selenium
Steep Learning Curve: Selenium has a high learning curve, which is especially challenging for people who are new to automated testing. Teams may find it difficult to start using Selenium as a result, and training may take more time and money.
Limited Support for Mobile Testing: Selenium may be used to tezt web applications on mobile devices, although its support is less comprehensive than that of tools made specifically for this purpose.
Maintenance Expense: Selenium needs constant upkeep to keep test scripts current and guarantee that they continue to function properly as web applications change. Particularly for bigger and more complicated online applications, this can take a lot of time and resources.
To sum up, Selenium is a flexible and effective technology that can be used to automate web application testing. Developers and testers may interact with online pages, locate HTML components, and take actions like clicking buttons and filling out forms by utilising the Selenium WebDriver to interface with web browsers.
Selenium is simple to integrate into current processes since it supports a large number of programming languages and testing frameworks. Developers and testers can save time, enhance the quality of their web applications, and guarantee that their web apps function properly on many platforms and browsers by using Selenium.